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    It says that both distance measurements and time measurements change near the speed of light. Einstein said that Special Relativity is based on two ideas.

    The first is that the laws of physics are the same for all observers that are not moving in relation to each other. All the people on a jet airplane would not be moving much in relation to each other, but the people in two different jet airplanes that come toward each other would be moving toward each other very fast.

    The people who are all going in the same direction at the same speed are said to be in an "inertial frame. A vacuum is a volume without any matter in it.

    People who are in the same "frame" think of them as being in a big box so that they all go places together and at the same speed will measure how long something takes to happen in the same way.

    Their clocks will keep the same time. But people moving in another "frame" will look over at them and see that their clocks were moving at a different rate.

    The reason that this happens is actually quite simple. It is the consequence of two ideas. One idea we have seen already. No matter what you are doing, even if you are moving toward a distant star at half the speed of light, or if you are moving away from it at half the speed of light or any other speed, it does not matter , if you measure the speed of the light coming from that star it will always be the same number.

    The other idea goes against our ordinary ideas. The other idea says that who is standing still and who is moving is whoever you say is standing still or moving.

    How can that be? Imagine you were all alone in a different universe. That universe has no suns, planets, or anything else. It just has you and your spaceship.

    Are you standing still? Those questions do not mean anything. Because when we say we are moving we mean that we can measure our distance from something else at one time and measure the distance at another time and the numbers will not be the same.

    If the numbers get bigger we are moving away. If the numbers get smaller we are moving closer. Suppose a sailor is standing on the edge of a very long boat with a flat top.

    Her boyfriend is standing on the dock. They are still very close together, so they shout to each other. The boat starts to leave. The sailor runs toward the back of the boat at the same speed that the boat moves forward so she and her boyfriend can keep talking.

    As far as her boyfriend is concerned, she is not moving. So to have movement you must have at least two things. We do not think about it because when we sit on the earth in a park, which is moving very fast around the sun, we think we are not moving because we do not get any closer or farther away from the trees in the park.

    Now imagine that another spaceship appears in this other universe. On your spaceship you say that their spaceship is coming closer to yours. After all, you do not feel yourself moving.

    On their spaceship they say that your spaceship is coming closer to theirs. They do not feel themselves to be moving either. Somebody on an airplane can be moving at several hundred kilometers per hour, but they say, "I am just sitting here.

    Let us try to stretch our minds a bit. Imagine that a basketball player is on a glass airplane on the ground. People outside can see him very easily.

    He begins to walk from the back of the airplane toward the front of the airplane, bouncing his basketball as he goes. Maybe the distance between the places where his basketball hits the floor of the airplane is about one meter or one yard.

    If some people are under the airplane they can mark the place directly under the airplane where the ball hits the floor. Those marks are a meter or maybe a yard apart.

    So everybody agrees that the bounces are about a meter or a yard apart. Later the plane takes off. People still watch it from on the ground.

    But this time bounce number 5 is over a place in Gibraltar and bounce number 6 is over a place in Spain. The distance between bounces is measured in kilometers or miles on the ground, but the people on the plane get the same answers they did while the plane was on the ground.

    Now suppose some people are on a big spaceship and they want to make a very accurate clock. So they make a long tunnel between decks from what would be like the top of an airplane to what would be the bottom of an airplane.

    At one end they put a mirror, and at the other end they put a simple machine. It shoots one short burst of light toward the mirror and then waits.

    The light hits the mirror and bounces back. They decide that a certain number of bounces will be defined as a second, and they make the machine change the seconds counter every time it has detected that number of bounces.

    Every time it changes the seconds counter it also flashes a light out through a porthole under the machine. So somebody out taking a space walk will see the light flashing every second.

    We know the speed of light, and we can easily measure the distance between the machine and the mirror and multiple that to give the distance the light travels.

    So we have both d and r , and we can easily calculate t. The people on the spaceship compare their new "light clock" with their various wrist watches and other clocks, and they are satisfied that they can measure time well using their new light clock.

    Now this spaceship happens to be going very fast. It is not coming to Earth to visit, but it does happen to fly over the North Pole.

    There is a science station with a telescope at the North Pole. They see a flash from the clock on the space ship, and then they see another flash.

    Only the flashes do not come a second apart. They come at a slower rate. The reason is that the situation is like the basketball player on the airplane.

    The ball is pushed downward by the player's hand. That is the light in the spaceship's machine firing off a burst toward the mirror. The ball hits the floor and bounces.

    That is like the light hitting the mirror and being reflected. The ball returns to the player's hand. That is like the light hitting the machine and triggering a new burst of light.

    Note that the distance between the place on the ground where the basketball is seen to hit the floor and the distance on the ground where the basketball is seen to return to the basketball player's hand is some great distance.

    Depending on how fast the plane is going, it might be a kilometer or even a mile away. So the man on the North Pole sees the light flash on the side of the spaceship when it is thousands of miles away, and then sees the next flash when the spaceship has gotten thousands of miles closer.

    That is why the clock on the spaceship is not flashing once a second for the Earth observer. It is a famous equation in physics and math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass.

    The "E" in the equation stands for energy. Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things.

    For instance, a brick hanging over an egg can put enough energy onto the egg to break it. A feather hanging over an egg does not have enough energy to hurt the egg.

    There are three basic forms of energy: Two of these forms of energy can be seen in the examples given above, and in the example of a pendulum.

    A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed.

    It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction , and the friction takes away a little energy all the time.

    If we ignore the losses due to friction, then the energy provided by the horse is given to the cannonball as potential energy.

    It has energy because it is up high and can fall down. As the cannonball swings down it gains more and more speed, so the nearer the bottom it gets the faster it is going and the harder it would hit you if you stood in front of it.

    Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same.

    It cannot be made or destroyed. This rule is called the "conservation law of energy". For example, when you throw a ball, the energy is transferred from your hand to the ball as you release it.

    But the energy that was in your hand, and now the energy that is in the ball, is the same number. For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about.

    When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. When mass transforms into energy, the amount of energy also does not remain the same.

    However, the amount of matter and energy remains the same. The "m" in Einstein's equation stands for mass. Mass is the amount of matter there is in some body.

    If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons.

    Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible. Masses pull on each other, and a very large mass such as that of the Earth pulls very hard on things nearby.

    You would weigh much more on Jupiter than on Earth because Jupiter is so huge. You would weigh much less on the Moon because it is only about one-sixth the mass of Earth.

    Weight is related to the mass of the brick or the person and the mass of whatever is pulling it down on a spring scale — which may be smaller than the smallest moon in the solar system or larger than the Sun.

    Mass, not weight, can be transformed into energy. Another way of expressing this idea is to say that matter can be transformed into energy.

    Units of mass are used to measure the amount of matter in something. The mass or the amount of matter in something determines how much energy that thing could be changed into.

    Energy can also be transformed into mass. If you were pushing a baby buggy at a slow walk and found it easy to push, but pushed it at a fast walk and found it harder to move, then you would wonder what was wrong with the baby buggy.

    Then if you tried to run and found that moving the buggy at any faster speed was like pushing against a brick wall, you would be very surprised.

    The truth is that when something is moved then its mass is increased. Human beings ordinarily do not notice this increase in mass because at the speed humans ordinarily move the increase in mass in almost nothing.

    As speeds get closer to the speed of light, then the changes in mass become impossible not to notice. The basic experience we all share in daily life is that the harder we push something like a car the faster we can get it going.

    But when something we are pushing is already going at some large part of the speed of light we find that it keeps gaining mass, so it gets harder and harder to get it going faster.

    It is impossible to make any mass go at the speed of light because to do so would take infinite energy. Sometimes a mass will change to energy.

    Common examples of elements that make these changes we call radioactivity are radium and uranium. Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president.

    Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age, and later wrote: I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music.

    I see my life in terms of music I get most joy in life out of music. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture.

    According to conductor Leon Botstein , Einstein began playing when he was 5, although he did not enjoy it at that age.

    When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart , whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more willingly.

    He taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically", he said, deciding that "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty. Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student.

    Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends.

    Chamber music had also become a regular part of his social life while living in Bern, Zürich, and Berlin, where he played with Max Planck and his son, among others.

    He is sometimes erroneously credited as the editor of the edition of the Köchel catalogue of Mozart's work; that edition was prepared by Alfred Einstein , who may have been a distant relation.

    In , while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet.

    Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as " Why Socialism? Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi.

    He exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him.

    Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. And one life is enough for me.

    He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York , [] and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association , which publishes New Humanist in Britain.

    For the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture , he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism.

    He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity. On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want.

    It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.

    During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.

    There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles.

    These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:.

    Einstein's first paper [] submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena".

    Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist.

    His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.

    Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.

    At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white.

    Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.

    Einstein's " Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper " [] "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" was received on 30 June and published 26 September of that same year.

    It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics.

    The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.

    This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.

    Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies. In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime.

    Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity. General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.

    General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.

    As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory.

    In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.

    This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational red shift and deflection of light.

    In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.

    Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves , [] [] ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.

    The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it.

    By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.

    While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible.

    He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.

    In June , the Entwurf "draft" theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions.

    After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken [] and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.

    As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe.

    The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years.

    This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe. Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of [] [] and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".

    The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated.

    In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe.

    For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space. It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.

    General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry.

    The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates.

    He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.

    This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in by Erwin Schrödinger and others.

    In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges. These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches.

    If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.

    In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.

    This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations.

    Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law.

    So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself.

    This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.

    In a paper, [] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr.

    This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.

    Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant.

    He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.

    In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator.

    Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.

    Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems.

    After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.

    Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process.

    Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.

    Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.

    Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik.

    Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.

    Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University.

    Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.

    This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics.

    Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.

    In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory".

    Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.

    The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.

    In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.

    This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.

    Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.

    This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of Einstein was displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after Contrary to popular belief, his doubts were not due to a conviction that God "is not playing at dice.

    Einstein believed that a physical reality exists independent of our ability to observe it. In contrast, Bohr and his followers maintained that all we can know are the results of measurements and observations, and that it makes no sense to speculate about an ultimate reality that exists beyond our perceptions.

    The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.

    Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics in the "EPR paper".

    No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.

    Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance".

    This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J.

    Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the classical picture of physics.

    Although Einstein was wrong, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of entangled quantum states has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review.

    It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.

    In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".

    In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.

    Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.

    Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research. In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.

    Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.

    In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum.

    They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.

    Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose—Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator.

    Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it.

    This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas.

    Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.

    Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux.

    While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University.

    Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in [].

    Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union.

    Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university. In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".

    He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein.

    Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true".

    Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him. Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".

    None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For the musicologist, see Alfred Einstein. For other people, see Einstein surname. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation and Einstein disambiguation.

    German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity. Swiss Federal Polytechnic —; B. Albert Einstein's political views and Albert Einstein's religious views.

    Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect , Special theory of relativity , Mass—energy equivalence , and Brownian motion.

    Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics. History of special relativity. History of general relativity. Equivalence principle , Theory of relativity , and Einstein field equations.

    Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Classical unified field theories.

    Albert Einstein in popular culture. Einstein's awards and honors. Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: Written at Zurich, Switzerland.

    Annalen der Physik Berlin in German. Hoboken, NJ published 14 March Einstein, Albert a [Manuscript received: Written at Berne, Switzerland.

    Hoboken, NJ published 10 March Einstein, Albert b [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei.

    ETH Zürich published Einstein, Albert c [Manuscript received: Einstein, Albert d [Manuscript received: Annalen der Physik Berlin Submitted manuscript in German.

    Einstein, Albert e [Manuscript received: Einstein, Albert [Published 25 November ]. Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften , Berlin.

    Physikalische Zeitschrift in German. Einstein, Albert [First published , in English ]. Nobel Lectures, Physics — in German and English Unrecognized language link Einstein, Albert [Published 10 July ].

    First of a series of papers on this topic. Die Naturwissenschaften in German. Dover Publications published Physical Review Submitted manuscript.

    Einstein, Albert 9 November On Science and Religion. Einstein, Albert; et al. The New York Times. Einstein, Albert May Monthly Review Foundation published May Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 16 January — via MonthlyReview.

    Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel — in German. Paul Arthur Schilpp Centennial ed. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48— Stachel, John ; Martin J.

    Kox; Michel Janssen; R. Schulmann; Diana Komos Buchwald; et al. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein.

    Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page.

    She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home.

    How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.

    Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 March Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 11 July The accelerating universe" PDF.

    Retrieved 24 November Boyer; Melvyn Dubofsky Harper and Brothers Publishers Harper Torchbook edition. His non-scientific works include: The Trustees of Princeton University.

    The Golden Age of Physics. Archived from the original PDF on 19 January Retrieved 19 October The Love Letters , , pp. A Biography , , pp.

    A Hundred Years of Relativity. BZ Berner Zeitung in German. Ich denke in innigster Liebe an Dich in jeder freien Minute und bin so unglücklich, wie nur ein Mensch es sein kann.

    The Question of Time". Marcel Grossmann gewidmet Dedicated to my friend, Dr. Einstein Online in German and English. Retrieved 17 August Eine weitere Diskontinuität bestand viertens darin, dass die Bestimmungen der österreichischen Staatsbürgerschaft, die in den ersten Dritteln des Jahrhunderts auch auf Ungarn angewandt worden waren, seit nur noch für die cisleithanische Reichshälfte galten.

    Ungarn entwickelte hingegen jetzt eine eige-ne Staatsbürgerschaft. Retrieved 9 July

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    His daughter "Lieserl" her real name may never be known was born about a year before their marriage in January Her very existence only became known to the world in when a shoe box containing 54 love letters mostly from Einstein , exchanged between Mileva and Einstein from late to September , was discovered by Einstein's granddaughter in an attic in California.

    He spent decades in hospitals, and died in the Zurich sanatorium in In , Einstein became very sick with an illness that almost killed him.

    His cousin Elsa Lowenthal nursed him back to health. After this happened, Einstein divorced Mileva, and married Elsa on 2 June Just before the start of World War I , he moved back to Germany, and became director of a school there.

    He lived in Berlin until the Nazi government came to power. The Nazis hated people who were Jewish or who came from Jewish families.

    They accused Einstein of helping to create "Jewish physics," and German physicists tried to prove that his theories were wrong.

    Roosevelt , to say that the United States should invent an atomic bomb so that the Nazi government could not beat them to the punch. He was the only one who signed the letter.

    He was, however, not part of the Manhattan Project , which was the project that created the atomic bomb. Einstein, a Jew but not an Israeli citizen, was offered the presidency in but turned it down, stating "I am deeply moved by the offer from our State of Israel, and at once saddened and ashamed that I cannot accept it.

    He taught physics at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey until his death on 18 April of a burst aortic aneurysm. He was still writing about quantum physics hours before he died.

    He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. The theory of special relativity was published by Einstein in , in a paper called "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies".

    It says that both distance measurements and time measurements change near the speed of light. Einstein said that Special Relativity is based on two ideas.

    The first is that the laws of physics are the same for all observers that are not moving in relation to each other. All the people on a jet airplane would not be moving much in relation to each other, but the people in two different jet airplanes that come toward each other would be moving toward each other very fast.

    The people who are all going in the same direction at the same speed are said to be in an "inertial frame. A vacuum is a volume without any matter in it.

    People who are in the same "frame" think of them as being in a big box so that they all go places together and at the same speed will measure how long something takes to happen in the same way.

    Their clocks will keep the same time. But people moving in another "frame" will look over at them and see that their clocks were moving at a different rate.

    The reason that this happens is actually quite simple. It is the consequence of two ideas. One idea we have seen already.

    No matter what you are doing, even if you are moving toward a distant star at half the speed of light, or if you are moving away from it at half the speed of light or any other speed, it does not matter , if you measure the speed of the light coming from that star it will always be the same number.

    The other idea goes against our ordinary ideas. The other idea says that who is standing still and who is moving is whoever you say is standing still or moving.

    How can that be? Imagine you were all alone in a different universe. That universe has no suns, planets, or anything else.

    It just has you and your spaceship. Are you standing still? Those questions do not mean anything. Because when we say we are moving we mean that we can measure our distance from something else at one time and measure the distance at another time and the numbers will not be the same.

    If the numbers get bigger we are moving away. If the numbers get smaller we are moving closer. Suppose a sailor is standing on the edge of a very long boat with a flat top.

    Her boyfriend is standing on the dock. They are still very close together, so they shout to each other. The boat starts to leave.

    The sailor runs toward the back of the boat at the same speed that the boat moves forward so she and her boyfriend can keep talking.

    As far as her boyfriend is concerned, she is not moving. So to have movement you must have at least two things. We do not think about it because when we sit on the earth in a park, which is moving very fast around the sun, we think we are not moving because we do not get any closer or farther away from the trees in the park.

    Now imagine that another spaceship appears in this other universe. On your spaceship you say that their spaceship is coming closer to yours.

    After all, you do not feel yourself moving. On their spaceship they say that your spaceship is coming closer to theirs.

    They do not feel themselves to be moving either. Somebody on an airplane can be moving at several hundred kilometers per hour, but they say, "I am just sitting here.

    Let us try to stretch our minds a bit. Imagine that a basketball player is on a glass airplane on the ground. People outside can see him very easily.

    He begins to walk from the back of the airplane toward the front of the airplane, bouncing his basketball as he goes. Maybe the distance between the places where his basketball hits the floor of the airplane is about one meter or one yard.

    If some people are under the airplane they can mark the place directly under the airplane where the ball hits the floor. Those marks are a meter or maybe a yard apart.

    So everybody agrees that the bounces are about a meter or a yard apart. Later the plane takes off. People still watch it from on the ground.

    But this time bounce number 5 is over a place in Gibraltar and bounce number 6 is over a place in Spain.

    The distance between bounces is measured in kilometers or miles on the ground, but the people on the plane get the same answers they did while the plane was on the ground.

    Now suppose some people are on a big spaceship and they want to make a very accurate clock. So they make a long tunnel between decks from what would be like the top of an airplane to what would be the bottom of an airplane.

    At one end they put a mirror, and at the other end they put a simple machine. It shoots one short burst of light toward the mirror and then waits.

    The light hits the mirror and bounces back. They decide that a certain number of bounces will be defined as a second, and they make the machine change the seconds counter every time it has detected that number of bounces.

    Every time it changes the seconds counter it also flashes a light out through a porthole under the machine. So somebody out taking a space walk will see the light flashing every second.

    We know the speed of light, and we can easily measure the distance between the machine and the mirror and multiple that to give the distance the light travels.

    So we have both d and r , and we can easily calculate t. The people on the spaceship compare their new "light clock" with their various wrist watches and other clocks, and they are satisfied that they can measure time well using their new light clock.

    Now this spaceship happens to be going very fast. It is not coming to Earth to visit, but it does happen to fly over the North Pole.

    There is a science station with a telescope at the North Pole. They see a flash from the clock on the space ship, and then they see another flash.

    Only the flashes do not come a second apart. They come at a slower rate. The reason is that the situation is like the basketball player on the airplane.

    The ball is pushed downward by the player's hand. That is the light in the spaceship's machine firing off a burst toward the mirror.

    The ball hits the floor and bounces. That is like the light hitting the mirror and being reflected. The ball returns to the player's hand.

    That is like the light hitting the machine and triggering a new burst of light. Note that the distance between the place on the ground where the basketball is seen to hit the floor and the distance on the ground where the basketball is seen to return to the basketball player's hand is some great distance.

    Depending on how fast the plane is going, it might be a kilometer or even a mile away. So the man on the North Pole sees the light flash on the side of the spaceship when it is thousands of miles away, and then sees the next flash when the spaceship has gotten thousands of miles closer.

    That is why the clock on the spaceship is not flashing once a second for the Earth observer. It is a famous equation in physics and math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass.

    The "E" in the equation stands for energy. Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things.

    For instance, a brick hanging over an egg can put enough energy onto the egg to break it. A feather hanging over an egg does not have enough energy to hurt the egg.

    There are three basic forms of energy: Two of these forms of energy can be seen in the examples given above, and in the example of a pendulum.

    A cannonball hangs on a rope from an iron ring. A horse pulls the cannonball to the right side. When the cannonball is released it will move back and forth as diagrammed.

    It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction , and the friction takes away a little energy all the time.

    If we ignore the losses due to friction, then the energy provided by the horse is given to the cannonball as potential energy.

    It has energy because it is up high and can fall down. As the cannonball swings down it gains more and more speed, so the nearer the bottom it gets the faster it is going and the harder it would hit you if you stood in front of it.

    Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same.

    It cannot be made or destroyed. This rule is called the "conservation law of energy". For example, when you throw a ball, the energy is transferred from your hand to the ball as you release it.

    But the energy that was in your hand, and now the energy that is in the ball, is the same number. For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about.

    When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. When mass transforms into energy, the amount of energy also does not remain the same.

    However, the amount of matter and energy remains the same. The "m" in Einstein's equation stands for mass. Mass is the amount of matter there is in some body.

    If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons.

    Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible. Masses pull on each other, and a very large mass such as that of the Earth pulls very hard on things nearby.

    According to a legend in the gambling world Albert Einstein once visited a Las Vegas casino and after observing the action around the roulette wheel he said:.

    QI believes this quotation can be traced back to an article and a book by a controversial reporter named Ted Thackrey, Jr. The fourth article discussed a colorful gambler named Nick the Greek who died in and whose full name was Nicholas Andrea Dandolos.

    Just how or when the gambler and the scientist happened to become acquainted was a matter that neither man ever bothered to explain.

    In the book the description of the roulette anecdote was extended, and after Dandolos won three times Einstein was apologetic [AEBG]:.

    Then he cashed in, pocketed his winnings, and grinned at the scientist. In the book Dandolos and Einstein discussed the odds of various games, and Einstein wondered why someone would play a game like Chuck-A-Luck with such poor winning odds.

    Dandolos was also unable to understand the psychology of such gamblers. Bass was published, and it told the tale of physics graduate students attempting to make money at casinos by predicting the outcomes of roulette wheels by secretly entering data into small computers executing sophisticated algorithms which were hidden in shoes.

    The input data recorded the early motion of the ball and spinning wheel before a bet was placed. A two part article about the book by Bass appeared in Science Digest.

    The journalist and author Ted Thackrey, Jr. The article included the following anecdote. Of course, one should never evaluate a full complex career based one article or story [TTLT]:.

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