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He became a popular folk figure in the Late Middle Ages, and the earliest known ballads featuring him are from the 15th century. There have been numerous variations and adaptations of the story over the last six hundred years, and the story continues to be widely represented in literature, film and television.
Robin Hood is considered one of the best known tales of English folklore. The historicity of Robin Hood is not conclusively proven and has been debated for centuries.
There are numerous references to historical figures with similar names that have been proposed as possible evidence of his existence, some dating back to the late 13th century.
At least eight plausible origins to the story have been mooted by historians and folklorists, including suggestions that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by outlaws in general who did not want to reveal their identity.
The first clear reference to 'rhymes of Robin Hood' is from the alliterative poem Piers Plowman , thought to have been composed in the s, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the second half of the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his Marianism and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer , his anti-clericalism, and his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are already clear.
The latter has been part of the legend since at least the later 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script. In modern popular culture, Robin Hood is typically seen as a contemporary and supporter of the lateth-century king Richard the Lionheart , Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the Third Crusade.
This view first gained currency in the 16th century. The early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode , names the king as 'Edward'; and while it does show Robin Hood accepting the King's pardon, he later repudiates it and returns to the greenwood.
The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk , gives even less support to the picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king.
The setting of the early ballads is usually attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not necessarily historically consistent.
The early ballads are also quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners.
The essence of it in the present context was 'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but something in between'.
As well as ballads, the legend was also transmitted by 'Robin Hood games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities.
The first record of a Robin Hood game was in in Exeter , but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time.
The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the later 15th and 16th centuries. Written after ,  it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff.
The first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode c. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham  c.
These are particularly noteworthy as they show Robin's integration into May Day rituals towards the end of the Middle Ages; Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham , among other points of interest, contains the earliest reference to Friar Tuck.
The plots of neither "the Monk" nor "the Potter" are included in the Gest; and neither is the plot of " Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne ", which is probably at least as old as those two ballads although preserved in a more recent copy.
Each of these three ballads survived in a single copy, so it is unclear how much of the medieval legend has survived, and what has survived may not be typical of the medieval legend.
It has been argued that the fact that the surviving ballads were preserved in written form in itself makes it unlikely they were typical; in particular, stories with an interest for the gentry were by this view more likely to be preserved.
The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in his later incarnations. In "Robin Hood and the Monk", for example, he is shown as quick tempered and violent, assaulting Little John for defeating him in an archery contest; in the same ballad Much the Miller's Son casually kills a 'little page ' in the course of rescuing Robin Hood from prison.
As it happens the next traveller is not poor, but it seems in context that Robin Hood is stating a general policy. The first explicit statement to the effect that Robin Hood habitually robbed from the rich to give the poor can be found in John Stow 's Annales of England , about a century after the publication of the Gest.
That tilleth with his ploughe. No more ye shall no gode yeman: That walketh by gren-wode shawe;: Ne no knyght ne no squyer: That wol be a gode felawe.
Within Robin Hood's band, medieval forms of courtesy rather than modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. In the early ballad, Robin's men usually kneel before him in strict obedience: The only character to use a quarterstaff in the early ballads is the potter, and Robin Hood does not take to a staff until the 17th-century Robin Hood and Little John.
The political and social assumptions underlying the early Robin Hood ballads have long been controversial. It has been influentially argued by J.
Holt that the Robin Hood legend was cultivated in the households of the gentry, and that it would be mistaken to see in him a figure of peasant revolt.
He is not a peasant but a yeoman, and his tales make no mention of the complaints of the peasants, such as oppressive taxes. By the early 15th century at the latest, Robin Hood had become associated with May Day celebrations, with revellers dressing as Robin or as members of his band for the festivities.
This was not common throughout England, but in some regions the custom lasted until Elizabethan times, and during the reign of Henry VIII , was briefly popular at court.
A complaint of , brought to the Star Chamber , accuses men of acting riotously by coming to a fair as Robin Hood and his men; the accused defended themselves on the grounds that the practice was a long-standing custom to raise money for churches, and they had not acted riotously but peaceably.
It is from the association with the May Games that Robin's romantic attachment to Maid Marian or Marion apparently stems.
The earliest preserved script of a Robin Hood play is the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham  This apparently dates to the s and circumstantial evidence suggests it was probably performed at the household of Sir John Paston.
This fragment appears to tell the story of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne. This includes a dramatic version of the story of Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar and a version of the first part of the story of Robin Hood and the Potter.
Neither of these ballads are known to have existed in print at the time, and there is no earlier record known of the "Curtal Friar" story.
The publisher describes the text as a ' playe of Robyn Hood, verye proper to be played in Maye games ', but does not seem to be aware that the text actually contains two separate plays.
These plays drew on a variety of sources, including apparently A Gest of Robin Hood , and were influential in fixing the story of Robin Hood to the period of Richard I.
Skelton himself is presented in the play as acting the part of Friar Tuck. Some scholars have conjectured that Skelton may have indeed written a lost Robin Hood play for Henry VIII's court, and that this play may have been one of Munday's sources.
Robin Hood is known to have appeared in a number of other lost and extant Elizabethan plays. Lleweleyn, the last independent Prince of Wales, is presented playing Robin Hood.
In it, the character Valentine is banished from Milan and driven out through the forest where he is approached by outlaws who, upon meeting him, desire him as their leader.
They comment, 'By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar, This fellow were a king for our wild faction!
When asked about the exiled Duke Senior, the character of Charles says that he is '"already in the forest of Arden, and a many merry men with him; and there they live like the old Robin Hood of England'.
It is about half finished and writing may have been interrupted by his death in It is Jonson's only pastoral drama, it was written in sophisticated verse and included supernatural action and characters.
The London theatre closure by the Puritans interrupted the portrayal of Robin Hood on the stage. The theatres would reopen with the Restoration in This short play adapts the story of the king's pardon of Robin Hood to refer to the Restoration.
However Robin Hood appeared on the 18th-century stage in various farces and comic operas. With the advent of printing came the Robin Hood broadside ballads.
Exactly when they displaced the oral tradition of Robin Hood ballads is unknown but the process seems to have been completed by the end of the 16th century.
Near the end of the 16th century an unpublished prose life of Robin Hood was written, and included in the Sloane Manuscript. Largely a paraphrase of the Gest, it also contains material revealing that the author was familiar with early versions of a number of the Robin Hood broadside ballads.
However, the Gest was reprinted from time to time throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. No surviving broadside ballad can be dated with certainty before the 17th century, but during that century, the commercial broadside ballad became the main vehicle for the popular Robin Hood legend.
The broadside ballads were fitted to a small repertoire of pre-existing tunes resulting in an increase of "stock formulaic phrases' making them 'repetitive and verbose',  they commonly feature Robin Hood's contests with artisans: Among these ballads is Robin Hood and Little John telling the famous story of the quarter-staff fight between the two outlaws.
Dobson and Taylor wrote, 'More generally the Robin of the broadsides is a much less tragic, less heroic and in the last resort less mature figure than his medieval predecessor'.
The 17th century introduced the minstrel Alan-a-Dale. He first appeared in a 17th-century broadside ballad , and unlike many of the characters thus associated, managed to adhere to the legend.
In the 18th century, the stories began to develop a slightly more farcical vein. From this period there are a number of ballads in which Robin is severely 'drubbed' by a succession of tradesmen including a tanner , a tinker and a ranger.
Yet even in these ballads Robin is more than a mere simpleton: The tinker, setting out to capture Robin, only manages to fight with him after he has been cheated out of his money and the arrest warrant he is carrying.
In Robin Hood's Golden Prize , Robin disguises himself as a friar and cheats two priests out of their cash. Even when Robin is defeated, he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn, summoning the Merry Men to his aid.
When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink with him instead see Robin Hood's Delight.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Robin Hood ballads were mostly sold in "Garlands" of 16 to 24 Robin Hood ballads; these were crudely printed chap books aimed at the poor.
The garlands added nothing to the substance of the legend but ensured that it continued after the decline of the single broadside ballad. In Thomas Percy bishop of Dromore published Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , including ballads from the 17th-century Percy Folio manuscript which had not previously been printed, most notably Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne which is generally regarded as in substance a genuine late medieval ballad.
A collection of all the Ancient Poems Songs and Ballads now extant, relative to that celebrated Outlaw. The only significant omission was Robin Hood and the Monk which would eventually be printed in Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood was also influential.
Himself a supporter of the principles of the French Revolution and admirer of Thomas Paine Ritson held that Robin Hood was a genuinely historical, and genuinely heroic, character who had stood up against tyranny in the interests of the common people.
In his preface to the collection Ritson assembled an account of Robin Hood's life from the various sources available to him, and concluded that Robin Hood was born in around , and thus had been active in the reign of Richard I.
He thought that Robin was of aristocratic extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated Nottinghamshire village of Locksley and that his original name was Robert Fitzooth.
Ritson gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November , when he would have been around 87 years old. In copious and informative notes Ritson defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life.
Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an 'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'.
Ritson's friend Walter Scott used Ritson's anthology collection as a source for his picture of Robin Hood in Ivanhoe , written in , which did much to shape the modern legend.
In the 19th century the Robin Hood legend was first specifically adapted for children. Children's editions of the garlands were produced and in a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood collection.
Children's Robin Hood novels began to appear. It is not that children did not read Robin Hood stories before, but this is the first appearance of a Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at them.
Egan made Robin Hood of noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national in scope: These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth.
Pyle's Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century.
In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows! The 20th century grafted still further details on to the original legends.
The film, The Adventures of Robin Hood , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades; this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son invented for that purpose rather than compete with the image of this one.
In , during the McCarthy era, the Republican members of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for a ban of Robin Hood from all Indiana school books for promoting communism because he stole from the rich to give to the poor.
In the animated Disney film, Robin Hood , the title character is portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by Brian Bedford.
Years before Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox. However, due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some elements from Reynard into Robin Hood , thus making the title character a fox.
The British-American film Robin and Marian , starring Sean Connery as Robin Hood and Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian, portrays the figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with Richard the Lionheart in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into seclusion in a nunnery.
Retrieved August 6, Retrieved October 14, Origins' Opposite Taron Egerton". Retrieved October 17, Retrieved January 13, Retrieved November 17, Retrieved December 22, Retrieved February 15, Retrieved January 26, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved September 22, — via Twitter.
Retrieved 28 September Retrieved February 27, Retrieved November 1, Robin Hood and His Merry Mouse Men in Tights Willie and Earl Richard's Daughter Rose the Red and White Lily Robyn and Gandeleyn A Gest of Robyn Hode Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne Robin Hood and the Monk Enraged that government has meddled in his church, Friar Tuck lashes out at the Sheriff, for which he is quickly arrested.
Prince John orders Friar Tuck hung, knowing Robin Hood will come out of hiding to rescue his friend and give the potential for Robin to be caught.
Robin and Little John learn of the plot and sneak in during the night, with Little John managing to free all of the prisoners whilst Robin steals Prince John's taxes with a makeshift ropeway conveyor , but Sir Hiss awakens to find Robin fleeing.
Chaos follows as Robin and the others try to escape to Sherwood Forest. The Sheriff corners Robin after he is forced to return to rescue Tagalong, Skippy's little sister.
During the chase, Prince John's castle catches fire and Robin jumps into the moat, where he is seemingly skewered by the soldiers' arrows.
Little John and Skippy fear Robin is lost, but he surfaces safely after using a reed as a breathing tube.
We have such a terrific kid audience That's the trouble — too sophisticated. We'll take a nosedive doing it with animals. Ultimately, the idea was nixed as Treasure Island would become the studio's first fully live-action film.
Over the years, the studio decided to make Reynard the villain of a musical feature film named Chanticleer and Reynard based on Edmond Rostand 's Chanticleer , but the production was scrapped in the early s in favor of The Sword in the Stone While The Aristocats was in production, Ken Anderson began exploring possibilities for the next film.
Studio executives favored a "classic" tale as the subject for the next film, in which Anderson suggested the tale of Robin Hood , which was received enthusiastically.
However, the executives were wary of the reputation of Song of the South , which was followed by Wolfgang Reitherman 's decision to set the film in its traditional English location inspired by The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men As production went further along, Robin Allan wrote in his book Walt Disney and Europe , that "Ken Anderson wept when he saw how his character concepts had been processed into stereotypes for the animation on Robin Hood.
Because of the time spent on developing several settings and auditioning actors to voice Robin Hood, production fell behind schedule.
By October , most of the voice actors were confirmed, with the exception of Tommy Steele cast in the title role.
However, Steele was unable to make his character sound more heroic,  and his replacement came down to final two candidates which were Bernard Fox and Brian Bedford ,  with the latter being chosen.
Meanwhile, Louis Prima was so angered at not being considered for a role that he personally paid the recording expenses for the subsequent album, Let's "Hear" it For Robin Hood , which he sold to Disneyland Records.
However, Robin Hood was viewed as the first choice since it was not held in such high esteem as some of the other titles, and was less likely to get another theatrical release as its reissue proved to be disappointing.
It was re-released in Judith Crist , reviewing the film in the New York magazine, said it was "nicely tongue-in-cheek without insult to the intelligence of either child or adult.
Ever since the old maestro died, the cartoon features have shown distressing signs of a drop in quality, both in art work and in voice characterization.
But the blending of appealing cartoon animals with perfect voices for the part makes Robin Hood an excellent evening out for the whole family.
Also writing in the New York magazine, Ruth Gilbert called it "a sweet, funny, slam-bang, good-hearted Walt Disney feature cartoon with a fine cast" and wrote it was "a feast for the eyes for kiddies and Disney nostalgics.
There is not a single moment of the hilarity or deep, eerie fear that the Disney people used to be able to conjure up, or of the sort of visual invention that made the early features so memorable.
Robin Hood ' s basic problem is that it is rather too pretty and good natured. Decades since the film's release, the film was heavily noted for the recycled scenes of animation.
The website's consensus states that "One of the weaker Disney adaptations, Robin Hood is cute and colorful but lacks the majesty and excitement of the studio's earlier efforts.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:. The music played in the background while Lady Kluck fights off Prince John's soldiers in an American football manner, following the archery tournament, is an arrangement of " Fight On " and " On, Wisconsin ", the respective fight songs of the University of Southern California and the University of Wisconsin.
A record of the film was made at the time of its release in , which included its songs, score, narration, and dialogue.
The full soundtrack of the film was released to the general public on August 4, as part of the Walt Disney Records: The Legacy Collection series on compact disc and digital, and was a timed exclusive to the D23 Expo.
The song "Love" is featured in the feature film Fantastic Mr. The tone is said to be similar to the Pirates of the Caribbean film series.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the character, see Robin Hood Disney character. From there it was logical that Maid Marian should be a pretty vixen.
Little John, legendarily known for his size, was easily a big overgrown bear. Friar Tuck is great as a badger, but he was also great as a pig, as I had originally planned.
Then I thought the symbol of a pig might be offensive to the Church , so we changed him. Richard the Lion-hearted, of course, had to be a regal, proud, strong lion; and his pathetic cousin [historically, and in the movie, his brother] Prince John, the weak villain, also had to be a lion, but we made him scrawny and childish.
I originally thought of a snake as a member of the poor townspeople but one of the other men here suggested that a snake would be perfect as a slithering consort [Sir Hiss] to mean Prince John.
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